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Citation Formats and Style Guides

Guide to citation assistance

Turabian Style

The Turabian Citation System is Chicago Style modified for student papers.  It has two citation styles:

Notes-Bibliography (Bibliography Style) -- consists of 3 parts:  a  superscript number [the in-text signal of a source], a note [footnote or endnote informally identifying a source], and bibliography [list formally identifying a sources].  (15.3.1)

  1. Superscript the Note's number (no period) in text (16.3.2)
  2. Note numbers are normal text with a period.  Footnotes (Ex: 1.) are placed the bottom of the reference's page  (16.3.4).  The Endnotes (Ex. 2.) are grouped and located at the end of the text (16.3.4)
  3. Bibliography of all sources cited in the paper and may include items consulted, but not cited. (16.2)
Ibid. ["in the same place"] identifies consecutive, identical sources.

Parenthetical Citations-Reference List (Author-Date Style or Reference List Style-- consists of a parenthetical entry (the in-text signal of a source) (18.3) and References (full bibliographical details for all sources cited and may include items consulted, but not cited) (18.2).

Check with your faculty member to confirm the style details for your course.

The core principles of the Turabian citation system are in Part II of the Manual (Ref LB2369 .T8 2007),

General Introduction to Citation Practices -- Sec. 15, pp. 135-143

Notes-Bibliography Style --

Sec. 16, pp. 144-163 -- The Basic Form    

Sec. 17, pp. 164-215 -- Citing Specific Types of Sources

Author-Date Style -- 

Sec. 18, pp. 216-228 -- The Basic Form

Sec. 19, pp. 229-292 -- Citing Specific Types of Sources

Appendix: Paper Format -- 

A.1  General Format  (margins, typeface, spacing and indent, pagination, titles)

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Chicago Style

The Chicago Style Manual (16th edition) includes the use of the Digital Object Identifier (DOI).  The DOI is a unique string of numbers assigned to electronic journals to identify specific articles [1.74].  DOIs may also be available in electronic/online books [14.167].

DOI Sample: doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2014.10.048. 

Option:  Make a DOI link active.  Precede the DOI number with the following:


An article's DOI is usually located at the top of the first page of an article.  It may also be available in the item's bibliographic record.  The final option is the DOI Lookup (link below).

Other stable identifiers of articles are stable/persistent/permalink URLS and accession number are acceptable.

Comprehensive sites cover all aspects of using Chicago style.

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