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ENG 111 - Jack Kenny

Identifying parts of a source

A citation is a reference to a source of information.  A citation typically includes enough identifying information, such as the author, title, publisher information, date of publication, database retrieved from, etc. for a reader to be able to locate a copy of the item.

The ability to interpret citations or references from various sources of information is a fundamental research skill.  In order to be able to correctly cite a source in a specific style, you need to be able to determine what type of source the item is, where the source came from, and identify the various elements of the source.


Below are some examples of different types of sources.

Print Book - One Author

Essay or Book Chapter with Author and Book Editors




Online Journal Article (from a database)

Magazine Article




Newspaper Article


Adapted from Renoylds Community College's Citing Sources LibGuide (Oct 2018)