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Faculty Resources

A guide of library and information literacy resources for Canisius faculty & staff.

The Framework

In 2016 the original Standards for information Literacy were changed by the American Library Association to a Framework for Information Literacy in Higher Education. This Framework offers a more holistic and process-oriented descriptor of the research process than the more linear set of standards that were used previously.

 

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Source: Volunteer State Community College http://libguides.volstate.edu/instruction/infolit

AUTHORITY IS CONSTRUCTED and CONTEXTUAL

Information resources reflect their creators' expertise and credibility and are evaluated based on the information need and the context in which the information will be used. Authority is constructed in that various communities may recognized different types of authority. It is contextual in that the information need may help determine the level of authority required.

 

KNOWLEDGE PRACTICES

Learners who are developing their information literate abilities do the following:

  • Define different types of authority, such as subject expertise, societal position, or special experience.
  • Use research tools and indicators of authority to determine the credibility of sources, understanding the elements that might temper this credibility.
  • Understand that many disciplines have acknowledged authorities in the sense of well-known scholars and publications that are widely considered "standard." Even in those situations, some scholars would challenge the authority of those sources.

DISPOSITIONS

Learners who are developing their information literate abilities are:

  • Inclined to develop ways maintain an open mind when encountering varied and sometimes conflicting perspectives.
  • Motivated to find authoritative sources, recognizing that authority may be conferred or manifested in unexpected ways.
  • Aware of the importance of assessing content with a skeptical stance with a self-awareness of their own biases and worldview.

 

Information Creation as Process

Information in any format is produced to convey a message and is shared via a selected delivery method. The iterative processes of research, creating, revising, and dissemination information vary, and the resulting product reflects these differences.

Knowledge Practices

Learners who are developing their information literate abilities:

  • Articulate the capabilities and constraints of information developed through various creation processes.
  • Assess the fit between an information product's creation process and a particular information need.
  • Articulate the traditional and emerging processes of information creation and dissemination in a particular discipline.
  • Recognize that information may be perceived differently based on the format in which it is packaged.
  • Recognize the implications of information formats that contain static or dynamic information.
  • Monitor the value that is placed upon different types of information products in varying contexts.
  • Transfer knowledge of capabilities and constraints to new types of information  products.
  • Develop, in their own creation processes, an understanding that their choices impact the purposes for which the information product will be used and the message it conveys.

DISPOSITIONS

Learners who are developing their information literate abilities:

  • Are inclined to seek out characteristics of information products that indicate the underlying creation process.
  • Value the process of matching an information need with an appropriate product.
  • Accept that the creation of information may begin initially through communicating in a range of formats or modes.
  • Accept the ambiguity surrounding the potential value of information creation expressed in emerging formats or models.
  • Resist the tendency to equate format with the underlying creation process.
  • Understand that different methods of information dissemination with different purposes are available for their use.

INFORMATION HAS VALUE

Information possesses several dimensions of value, including as a commodity, as a means of education, as a means to influence, and as a means of negotiating and understanding the world. Legal and socioeconomic interests influence information production and dissemination.

KNOWLEDGE PRACTICES

Learners who are developing their information literate abilities:

  • Give credit to the original ideas of others through proper attribution and citation.
  • Understand that intellectual property is a legal and social construct that varies by culture.
  • Articulate the purpose and distinguishing characteristics of copyright, fair use, open access, and the public domain.
  • Understand how and why some individuals or groups of individuals may be underrepresented or systematically marginalized within the systems that produce and disseminate information.
  • Recognize issues of access or lack of access to information sources.
  • Decide where and how their information is published.
  • Understand how the commodification of their personal information and online interactions affects the information they receive and the information they produce or disseminate online.
  • Make informed choices regarding their online actions in full awareness of issues related to privacy and the commodification of personal information.

DISPOSITIONS

Learners who are developing their information literate abilities:

  • Respect the original ideas of others.
  • Value the skills, time, and effort needed to produce knowledge.
  • See themselves as contributors to the information marketplace rather than only consumers of it.
  • Are inclined to examine their own information privilege.

RESEARCH AS INQUIRY

Research is iterative and depends upon asking increasingly complex or new questions whose answers in turn develop additional questions or lines of inquiry in any field. 

KNOWLEDGE PRACTICES

Learners who are developing their information literate abilities:

  • Formulate questions for research based on information gaps or on reexamination of existing, possibly conflicting, information.
  • Determine and appropriate scope of investigation.
  • Deal with complex research by breaking complex questions into simple ones, limiting the scope of investigations.
  • Use various research methods, based on need, circumstance, and type of inquiry.
  • Monitor gathered information and assess for gaps or weaknesses.
  • Organize information in meaningful ways.
  • Synthesize ideas gathered from multiple sources.
  • Draw reasonable conclusions based on the analysis and interpretation of information.

DISPOSITIONS

Learners who are developing their information literate abilities:

  • Consider research as open-ended exploration and engagement with information.
  • Appreciate that a question may appear to be simple but still disruptive and important to research.
  • Value intellectual curiosity in developing questions and learning new investigative methods.
  • Maintain an open mind and a critical stance.
  • Value persistence, adaptability, and flexibility and recognize that ambiguity can benefit the research process.
  • Seek multiple perspectives during information gathering and using information.
  • Follow ethical and legal guidelines in gathering and using information.
  • Demonstrate intellectual humility (i.e., recognize their own intellectual or experiential limitations).

SCHOLARSHIP AS CONVERSATION

Communities of scholars, researchers, or professionals engage in sustained discourse with new insights and discoveries occurring over time as a result of varied perspectives and interpretations.

KNOWLEDGE PRACTICES

Learners who are developing their information literate abilities:

  • Cite the contributing work of others in their own information production.
  • Contribute to scholarly conversation at an appropriate level, such as local online community, guided discussion, undergraduate research journal, conference presentation/poster session.
  • Identify barriers to entering scholarly conversation via various venues.
  • Critically evaluate contributions made by others in participatory information environments.
  • Identify the contribution that particular articles, books, and other scholarly pieces make to disciplinary knowledge.
  • Summarize the changes in scholarly perspective over time on a particular topic within a specific discipline.
  • Recognize that a given scholarly work may not represent the only or even the majority perspective on the issue.

DISPOSITIONS

Learners who are developing their information literate abilities:

  • Recognize they are often entering into an ongoing scholarly conversation and not a finished conversation.
  • Seek out conversations taking place in their research area.
  • See themselves as contributors to scholarship rather than only consumers of it.
  • Recognize that scholarly conversations take place in various venues.
  • Suspend judgment on the value of a particular piece of scholarship until the larger context for the scholarly conversation is better understood.
  • Understand the responsibility that comes with entering the conversation through participatory channels.
  • Value user-generated content and evaluate contributions made by others.
  • Recognize that systems privilege authorities and that not having a fluency in the language and process of a discipline disempowers their ability to participate and engage.

SEARCHING AS STRATEGIC EXPLORATION

Searching for information is often nonlinear and iterative, requiring the evaluation of a range of information sources and the mental flexibility to pursue alternate avenues as new understanding develops.

KNOWLEDGE PRACTICES

Learners who are developing their information literate abilities:

  • Determine the initial scope of the task required to meet their information needs.
  • Identify interested parties, such as scholars, organizations, governments, and industries, who might produce information about a topic and then determine how to access that information.
  • Utilize divergent (e.g., brainstorming) and convergent (e.g., selecting the best source) thinking when searching.
  • Match information needs and search strategies to appropriate search tools.
  • Design and refine needs and search strategies as necessary, based on search results.
  • Understand how information systems (i.e., collections of recorded information) are organized in order to access relevant information.
  • Use different types of searching language (e.g., controlled vocabulary, keywords, natural language) appropriately.
  • Manage searching processes and results effectively.

DISPOSITIONS

Learners who are developing their information literate abilities: 

  • Exhibit mental flexibility and creativity.
  • Understand that first attempts at searching do not always produce adequate results.
  • Realize that information sources vary greatly in content and format and have varying relevance and value, depending on the needs and nature of the search.
  • Seek guidance from experts, such as librarians, researchers, and professionals.
  • Recognize the value of browsing and other serendipitous methods of information gathering.
  • Persist in the face of search challenges and know when they have enough information to complete the information task.

 

 

 

 

"Information literacy is the set of integrated abilities encompassing the reflective discovery of information, the understanding of how information is produced and valued, and the use of information in creating new knowledge and participating ethically in communities of learning." (Association of College & Research Libraries 2016) It involves research using both traditional (print and library) and freely accessible (web) resources, critical thinking, and technological competence.

 


From the Canisius Core Curriculum Committee & Association of College & Research Libraries Information Literacy Standards
*:

* Current standards based on earlier ACRL Standards

In order to demonstrate information literacy by the time they graduate, students will practice over the course of four years the following strategies for finding and using information appropriately:

 
1. Define: The information literate student will define what one needs to learn, and why one needs to learn this (topic),
    and determine the nature and extent of the information needed. Students will demonstrate the ability to:
    - Define a topic (e.g. research question, thesis statement).
    - Identify the key concepts and terms related to the topic.
    - Develop search strategies for effective searching.

2. Find & Access: The information literate student will find and access information addressing the topic effectively and
    efficiently. Students will demonstrate the ability to:
    - Interpret the parts of a citation in order to find resources.
    - Find information from a variety of resources (print, including journals and books; databases; websites; etc.).
    - Use electronic resources to search for information (library catalog, article databases, search engines, etc.)
    - Access and retrieve information.

3. Evaluate: The information literate student evaluates information and its sources critically. Students will demonstrate
    the ability to:
    - Examine, compare, and assess information based on standard evaluation criteria.
    - Evaluate resources by considering reliability, validity, accuracy, bias, and currency.
    - Distinguish types of resources (scholarly, popular, trade publications, primary sources, etc.).
    - Recognize resources that are appropriate to the topic.
 
4. Use: The information literate student will use information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose. Students will
    demonstrate the ability to:
    - Extract concepts, details, and opinions from the resource material.
    - Draw independent conclusions based on the resource material.
    - Synthesize the resource material with existing knowledge.
    - Determine whether the resource material satisfies the topic.
    - Distinguish when to quote directly and when to paraphrase.
    - Use the resource material to accomplish a specific task (e.g. write a research paper, create a presentation,
      conduct an interview, etc.)
    - Use technology as necessary to accomplish a specific task.
 
5. Ethical Use: The information literate student will use information ethically within the norms of academic discourse.
    Students will demonstrate the ability to:
    - Understand copyright, intellectual property, royalties, and fair-use of information.
    - Identify plagiarism, how to avoid plagiarism, and the institutional repercussions of academic dishonesty.
    - Understand the reasons for citing sources and giving credit.
    - Use a selected documentation style to cite resources.

 Assignment

 Description

IL Goal Addressed

Annotated Bibliography

A bibliography with summative and/or evaluative text regarding each source.

   1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Detailed Outline

Students create a detailed, organized outline that would serve as the outline for a research paper. Could include fully written introduction and conclusion paragraphs.

   1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Research Journal

Students record their thoughts about the sources they read while researching. Make connections to other sources.

   1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Research Paper

Write a multiple page paper that references reputable sources, quotation and paraphrase weave well into text, reference/works cited list, could have guidelines on number and type of sources and suggested resources.

   1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Oral Presentation

Emphasize the information literacy skills inherent in an oral presentation including use of reputable sources, reference to sources during presentation, citation of images in ppt, reference/works cited list.

   1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Consumer Literature/Brochure

Create a brochure on a given topic for a consumer audience (i.e. an infectious disease, education resources for children with special needs, creating literature for a perspective investor on a company, an introduction to a certain religion, etc.)

   1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Literature Survey

A comprehensive review of the work on a particular topic.

   1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Point-Counterpoint Presentation

Present different sides of a controversial issue. This could be accomplished through an individual presentation, group presentation, class debate, student creation of a pro/con website or annotated bibliography, etc.

   1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Laboratory Write-Ups

In addition to writing up the methods and results od a given lab, have students incorporate previous works that have already been done on the topic, creating an introduction that supports their experiment.

   1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Article Summaries

Students read a topical article and submit two paragraphs – one paragraph to summarize and a second paragraph to analyze the text.

     2, 3, 4, 5

Information Source Comparison

Compare and contrast two types of sources on the same topic (i.e. magazine vs. journal article; Wikipedia vs. Subject-encyclopedia)

       3, 4, 5

Weaving Sources Into Business Communication

Have students write emails or letters that weave reputable sources and/or statistics into the text. For example, if recommending a certain software purchase, reference sources that support this purchase.

   1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Website or Blog

Create a website or blog that addresses a certain topic. Include references, each page/post is a different facet of the topic, identify audience for the site.

   1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Editorial

Write an editorial piece in response to an article in a newspaper.

   1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Explore How Scholarship Changes Over Time

Have students compare/contrast articles published on the same topic from two different time periods. For example, a scientific topic or social issue covered in the 1920’s, 60’s, and today. Or compare/contrast the evolution of publishing such as newspaper editorial/blog and open-access encyclopedia/traditional print subject encyclopedia.

     1, 2, 3, 4

Scientific Research Covered in the Popular Press

Using an article published in a magazine or newspaper that references a scientific study, track down the original study or journal article and evaluate the representation of the original research in the popular press source.

      3, 4, 5

Analyzing Statistics

Researching behind the numbers to find out how the data was compiled and who did the compiling

   1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Data Display

Using an assigned article or research gathered, create an infographic to display the data.

   1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Creating Wikipedia Page (or other dynamic content)

Have class create Wikipedia page on a person or topic related to the course. Will require searching for and attributing information sources and using technology to convey the information.

   1, 2, 3, 4, 5

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